PREVENTABLE will randomly assign atorvastatin 40 mg daily or matching placebo daily to approximately 20,000 community-dwelling adults 75 years of age or older without clinically evident cardiovascular disease, significant disability, or dementia, and follow them for up to 5 years (estimated median of 3.8 years). The study will enroll participants from approximately 100 US sites. Community engagement efforts will leverage community groups and practices as collaborators for recruitment. We plan to partner with participants, caregivers, and clinicians in all aspects of the study. The enrolling sites are non-VA and VA sites. To assist in recruitment, sites will apply a study-specific cohort identification algorithm to their electronic health record to create a list of eligible participants based on study inclusion and exclusion criteria. The cohort identification will exclude individuals with clinically evident cardiovascular disease, significant disability, or dementia and other exclusions obtainable from data queries to define a potential cohort. Additionally, the PREVENTABLE CCC will provide a centralized support team to assist with recruitment and retention efforts. This includes mass mailings and/or phone calls to potential participants and a toll-free number for potential participants to call for information and pre-screening. Interested and potentially eligible participants will be referred to an enrolling site near them, if applicable, otherwise, they will be referred to the PREVENTABLE Telesite which is capable of enrolling English and Spanish-speaking participants across the U.S. remotely. Sites will screen potential participants to confirm eligibility and consent and randomize those interested in joining the study. Specifically related to dementia, the qualifying exclusion is a clinical diagnosis in the chart or clinician's assessment that dementia may be present.

Sites will enter contact information, mailing address for study drug, demographic information, height, weight, statin history (if any), Social Security Number, and aspects of the medical history not obtainable from EHR. In addition, a Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and Activities of Daily Living (ADL) screen will be site-performed at baseline. SPPB will provide an objective assessment of function for understanding frailty and physical function of the enrolled population. Baseline lipid panel (core lab) and biospecimen samples will be obtained using the same blood draw for 20cc of blood. Blinded lipid testing will be performed at baseline on all participants (n=20,000) and repeated at 3 months in a random subset (n=2,000). Lipid panels will be sent to the PREVENTABLE Core Lab to maintain study blind. Future testing of lipid panels during routine clinical care will be actively discouraged, but other laboratory testing as indicated by clinical care is permitted. Sites will have the option for telehealth enrollment. Baseline SPPB and Biorepository Labs are not required, but encouraged.

As part of the study operations, with the rationale of providing patient centricity, ease of participation, and access for vulnerable and at risk participants, follow up will be performed by a central call center. The baseline and annual assessments performed centrally will include a phone screen for cognitive function (TICS-M) and physical function (Patient-reported Outcome Measurement Information System-Physical Function \[PROMIS-PF\]). After year 1, if baseline calls indicated by crossing pre-specified cutpoints, in-person assessments will be completed by trained and certified research staff at a mutually agreed upon time and a standardized interview of a knowledgeable informant. Cardiovascular event ascertainment will be via a systematic approach to data curation from the EHR, Medicare, and National Death Index. For convenience and compliance, the study pharmacy will mail a supply of study drug, sufficient for 90 days, directly to participants. This will start immediately after randomization and continue as long as the participant is on study drug.

Principal investigator

Michael Ernst
Phar Practice and Science

Eligibility criteria

Inclusion Criteria:
*  Community-dwelling adults
*  Age ≥75 years
*  English or Spanish as primary language
*  Able to provide a trusted contact

Exclusion Criteria:
*  Clinically evident cardiovascular disease defined as prior myocardial Infarction (MI), prior stroke, prior revascularization procedure, or a secondary prevention indication for a statin (clinician determined)
*  Hospitalization for a primary diagnosis of heart failure in the prior 12 months (Note: History of heart failure in the absence of recent hospitalization or clinically evident cardiovascular disease is not an exclusion)
*  Dementia (clinically evident or previously diagnosed)
*  Dependence in any Katz Basic Activities of Daily Living \[ADL\] (with the exception of urinary or bowel continence)
*  Severe hearing impairment (preventing phone follow up)
*  Unable to talk (preventing phone follow up)
*  Statin use in the past year or for longer than 5 years previously (participant reported)
*  Ineligible to take atorvastatin 40 mg (clinician determined)
*  Documented intolerance to statins
*  Active Liver Disease
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For Referring Providers

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Contact the study coordinator

Tamara Lowe
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